Statement and Assumptions


1.

Statement : The Highway police authority put up large boards at regular intervals indicating the speed limit and dangers of over-speeding on the highways.

Assumptions:

I. Most of the motorists may drive their vehicles within the speed limit on the highways.

II. Motorists generally ignore such cautions and over-speed on the highways.

A. If only assumption I is Implicit
B. If only assumption II is Implicit
C. If either I or II is Implicit
D. If both I and II are Implicit

Option A

The boards have been put with the assumption that they may have a positive impact.

2.

Statement : If the city bus which runs between Ramnagar and Sant colony is extended to vasant ,it will be convenient . Appeal of residents of ramnagar to city bus company

Assumptions :

1.The convenience of city bus company is much more important than the needs of consumers       

2.The city bus company is indifferent to the aspirations of the residents of Sant colony

A. Only 1 is true
B. Only 2 is true
C. Neither 1 nor 2 is true
D. Both 1 and 2 follow

Option C

Clearly the city bus company is intended  to provide bus services according to the needs as per local residents and not as per their own convenience.So 1 is not true.In the same way 2 is not true

3.

Statement : In Bombay,railway trains are indespenible for people in the subrubs to reach their places of work on time

Assumptions:  

1.Railway trains are the only mode of transport available in the subrubs of Bombay      

 2.Only railway trains run punctually

A. Only 1 is true
B. Only 2 is true
C. either 1 or 2 is true
D. neither 1 or 2 is true

Option B

The railway trains are indespinsible for people to reach the place on time does not mean that there are no other means of transport but shows that trains alone run on time.So, 1 is not true

4.

Statement : The 'M' Cooperative housing society has put up a notice at its gate that sales persons are not allowed inside the society

Assumptions: 

1.All the sales persons stay away from 'M' Cooperation society      

2.The security guard posted at the gate may be able to stop the sales persons entering the society

A. Only 1 is true
B. Only 2 is true
C. either 1 or 2 is true
D. Both 1 or 2 is true

Option D

Since both the assumptions follow from the given statement, So both 1 and 2 are implicit

5.

Statement : The office building needs repairing just as urgently as it needs internal as well as external painting

Assumptions: 

1.Efficiency of people working in the office cannot be improved unless office building is reapaire        

2.Repairing and painting of office building require funds

A. Only 1 is true
B. Only 2 is true
C. either 1 or 2 is true
D. neither 1 or 2 is true

Option D

Nothing can be deduced regarding the effect of repairs of office building on efficiency of workers, or the requirement of funds for repairs, from the given statement. So,neither 1 nor 2 is true

6.

Statement : "If it does not rain throughout this month ,most farmers would be in trouble this year"

Assumptions:      

 1.Timely rain is essential for farming    

 2.Most farmers are generally dependent on rains

A. Only 1 is true
B. Only 2 is true
C. either 1 or 2 is true
D. Both 1 or 2 is true

Option D

It is mentioned that farmers will be in troble without rain. This means that timely rain is essential.Also,it shows that farmers are dependent on rain.So,both 1 and 2 are true

7.

Statement: If he is intelligent, he will pass the examination

Assumptions: 

1.To Pass, he must be intelligent     

2.He will pass the examination

A. Only 1 is true
B. Only 2 is true
C. either 1 or 2 is true
D. neither 1 or 2 is true

Option A

The statement mentions that he will pass if he is intelligent.So,1 is implicit.further,this means that it is not necessary that he will pass. So, 2 is not implicit

8.

Statement: "We have the distinction of being the only company in India as well as the second in the world do have won an ISO 9002 quality certification in our line of business." - Statement  of company X's chairman.

Assumptions:

I. There were not many companies in the line of business of company 'X'.
II. Getting ISO 9002 in the line of business of company 'X' is not easy.
III. The company 'X' desires to expand its business.

A. Only I follows
B. Only II follows
C. Only III follows
D. Only II and III follows

Option D

Since it is hard to get ISO 9001 certification, he is trying to highlight company's achievement and by doing that expansion of his business is in his mind.

9.

Statement: "A rare opportunity to be a professional while you are at home." - An advertisement for computer-literate housewives by a computer company.

Assumptions:

I. Some housewives simultaneously desire to become professional.
II. Computer industry is growing at a fast pace.
III. It is possible to be a professional as well as a housewife.

A. Only I and II follows
B. Only II and III follows
C. Only I and III follows
D. Only II follows

Option C

Assuming I, the company has advertised for housewives. If it were not possible, the company would not go for such an advertisement. Hence, III is implicit.

10.

Statement: "'Music Loving Club' has announced a wide variety of programmes by the visiting musicians." - An advertisement

Assumptions: 

I. A large number of people are interested to get entertainment through the programme

II. The artistes may attract a large number of audience

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If both I and II are implicit

Option D

Why has the club announced a wide variety of music programes by the visiting musicians? The organizers must be assuming that the musicians may be able to play a variety of programmers to interest the people. Besides this, they must be assuming also that the program will attract audience. Thus, both I and II are implicit.

11.

Statement: Provide mid day meals to the children in primary schools to increase the number of students attending schools.

Assumptions:

I. Mid day meals will attract the children to the schools.
II. Those children who are otherwise deprived of good food will attend the schools.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If both I and II are implicit

Option D

The scheme will attract the children, particularly those who have no good food available at home. So both assumptions are implicit.

12.

Statement: The government has decided to pay compensation to the tune of Rs. 1 lakh to the family members of those who are killed in railway accidents.

Assumptions:

I. The government has enough funds to meet the expense due to compensation.
II. There may be reduction in incidents of railway accidents in near future.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option A

The decision taken by the government implies that the government must be assuming I. Note that no organization/government/person takes decision to compensate the victim unless it assumes that it has adequate find to satisfy the expenses. II can't be correlated. Hence, II is not implicit.

13.

Statement: It is not true that the mightiest superpower always wins wars and gets accolades from other countries.

Assumptions: 

I. Winners are sometimes admired and appreciated.
II. Winners are occasionally criticized.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option B

The tone of the statement implies that sometimes the mightiest superpower does not get accolades from other countries even after winning the war. Hence the speaker must be assuming II. The tone of the statement stresses on the failure of the mightiest to get accolades from other countries despite winning the war. Hence, I is not necessarily implicit.

14.

Statement: World Health Organization has decided to double its assistance to various health programmes in India as per capita expenditure on health in India is very low compared to many other countries.

Assumptions:

I. The enhanced assistance may substantially increase the per capita expenditure on health in India and bring it on par with other countries.
II. The Government funding is less than adequate to provide basic medical facilities in India.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option B

The real concern of WHO is the low per capita expenditure on health in India. Now, how will the initiative taken by WHO minimize the concern? The assumption is that the enhanced assistance may substantially increase the per capita expenditure on health in India. But, assumption I is not implicit due to the last part of it, i.e., 'and bring it in par with other countries.' Again, no one provides help to others unless one assumes that the other needs it. Hence, assumption II is implicit.

15.

Statement: If you could not collect the required amount by oral call you must publish an advertisement in a widely read newspaper.

Assumptions:

I. People rarely respond to oral call.
II. Generally people are reluctant to read an advertisement in a newspaper.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option D

The tone of the statement only implies that the speaker assumes that newspapers are more effective than oral call. The given assumption I is not implicit because of the word 'rarely'. II is also not implicit because it contradicts the valid assumption. Note that here the valid assumption is "people will read an advertisement in a newspaper."

16.

Statement: It is not true always that the adoption of latest technology ensures increased productivity and capacity.

Assumptions:

I. It is possible to prove that increased productivity and capacity are due to adoption of latest technology.
II. The productivity and capacity can be increased by discarding latest technology.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option A

The words ;not true always' implies that sometimes the move bears positive results. Hence, the speaker must be assuming I. II is obviously not implicit.

17.

Statement: An advertisement: If you want to follow the footprints of an ideal leader, wear 'X' brand of shoes.

Assumptions: 

I. Most people like to become ideal leaders.
II. One can't become ideal leader unless one wears 'X' brand of shoes.

A. If only assumption I is Implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option A

I is implicit; that is why the advertisement has been given. Second one is absurd.

18.

Statement: The X passenger car manufacturing company announced a sharp reduction in the prices of their luxury cars.

Assumptions:

I. There may be an increase in the sale of their luxury cars.
II. Other such car manufacturers may also reduce their prices.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option C

The company may have either of the two situations in mind. Generally, reduction in price is expected to lead to increase in sales. Hence I is implicit. Alternatively, it is possible that the decision has been taken with other manufacturers in mind. In that case II may be implicit even without assumption I.

19.

Statement: The traders of State K would observe a statewide bandh as the state has failed to meet their demand to resolve sales tax and other issues.

Assumptions:

I. The traders of State K have earlier tried other usual procedures to get their problems solved.
II. State K is not keen to solve the problem of traders.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option A

Failure to meet the demands is possible only when the demands have been raised in the first place. Hence I is implicit. II may be a conclusion but not an assumption

20.

Statement: Highly brilliant and industrious students do not always excel in the written examination.

Assumptions:

I. The written examination is good mainly for mediocre students.
II. The brilliant and industrious students cannot always write good answer in the exam.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option B

What we are being told about brilliant students does not have anything to do with mediocre students. Hence I is not implicit. But II is implicit. This must be the reason why the brilliant students do not always excel.

21.

Statement: In a certain area, 40%of women are in government service whereas 70% of the population of that area is in government service.

Conclusions:

I. 60% women have jobs in private undertakings.
II. 40% couples are in government service.

A. if only conclusion I follows
B. if only conclusion II follows
C. if either I or II follows
D. if neither I nor II follows

Option D

The statement gives us certain facts and figures about a particular area. It states that 40% of the women are in government service and 70% of the overall population is in government service. From this we cannot infer anything about the remaining 60% of the women of that area. Conclusion I states that 60% of the women are employed in the private sector which is not supported by the given statement, as it could be possible that these women are not employed at all. Hence I does not follow. We can discount conclusion II by taking the following example. Let us assume that this area has 100 male and 100 female members. Of this 40 women are employed in the government service and 100 males are all employed (as 70% of the overall population is employed). From this we cannot know whether there are any couples in this area or not and hence concluding 40% of the couples are married is not possible. Thus, II does not follow

22.

Statement: Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.

Assumptions:

I.There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.

II. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option A

I directly follow from the statement and so is implicit. Also, the statement is a suggestion and does not tell about a government policy or its position of funds. So, II is not implicit.

23.

Statement:  The education of a student at collegiate level, not taking into account maintenance expenses, costs four hundred rupees a year. Collegiate education is thus drawing heavily upon the national resources of an impoverished community. So college education should be restricted to a brilliant few.

Assumptions:

I.Our resources are very limited.

II.Only a few students should be admitted to the colleges.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. Both 1 or 2 are implicit

Option D

The use of the words 'impoverished community' in the statement makes I implicit while the phrase 'college education should be restricted to a brilliant few' makes II implicit.

24.

Statement: "Apply nets on windows to prevent the entrance of mosquitoes in the house."

Assumptions:

I. The entering of mosquitoes from entrances other than windows is desirable.

II. Nets are not available to apply on doors.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. Both 1 or 2 are implicit

Option D

The statement talks of a way to keep mosquitoes away. This means that entry of mosquitoes in the house is not desirable. So, I is not implicit. Besides, the statement advises using nets on windows. So, nothing about the use of nets on doors, can be deduced. Thus, II is also not implicit.

25.

Statement: Provide mid-day meals to the children in primary schools to increase the number of students attending schools.

Assumptions:

I. Mid-day meals will attract the children to the schools.

II. Those children who are otherwise deprived of good food will attend the schools.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option A

Providing mid-day meals would attract more number of children as an added privilege and not because the children are deprived of good meals at home. So, only I is implicit.

26.

Statement: Many people have expressed surprise as the princess has broken the royal tradition of marriage by choosing a commoner as her life partner.

Assumptions:

I. People expect royal families to observe customs and traditions.

II. People still value 'purity of royal blood' and 'status' when it comes to a marriage of members of royal family.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. Both 1 or 2 are implicit

Option D

Since the princess' step has been taken by surprise, it is evident that she was not expected to marry a commoner but a person of equivalent 'status*. So, both I and II are implicit

27.

Statement: If the city bus which runs between Ram Nagar and Sant Colony is extended to Vasant Vihar, it will be convenient. - Appeal of residents of Ram Nagar to the city bus company.

Assumptions:

I. The convenience of the city bus company is much more important than the needs of the consumers.

II. The city bus company is indifferent to the aspirations of the residents of Sant Colony.

A. If only assumption I is implicit
B. If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit

Option D

Clearly, the city bus company is meant to provide bus services according to the needs of the local residents and not as per their own convenience. So, I is not implicit. Again, the statement talks of an appeal of a resident of Ram/Nagar. So, nothing can be said about the company's response to appeals of the Residents of Sant Colony. So, II is also not implicit.

28.

Statement: "If you are beautiful, we will catch your beauty. If you are not, we will make you beautiful." - An advertisement of a photo studio.

Assumptions:

I. How to look beautiful is a problem of youngsters.

II. A photograph can be beautiful even if a person is not.

III. People like to be considered beautiful.

A. Only I and II are implicit
B. Only II and III are implicit
C. Only III is implicit
D. Only I and III are implicit

Option B

Clearly, the advertisement is meant for people of all age groups and so assuming a fact only in relation to youngsters is vague. So, I is not implicit. Also, the studio promises to make those people 'beautiful' who are not. This makes II implicit. Further, the advertisement is meant for persons who desire to be beautiful. So, III is implicit.

29.

Statement: In spite of the heavy rains the traffic has not been disrupted this year.

Assumptions:

I. The traffic is disrupted in rainy seasons only.

II. Rains do not affect traffic movement.

III. Adequate precautions were taken for traffic management during rainy season.

A. Only I is implicit
B. Only I and II are implicit
C. Only III is implicit
D. Only II and III are implicit

Option C

The statement expresses surprise at the traffic situation remaining normal even after rains. This means that rains affect traffic. So, II is not implicit. But this does not mean that only rains affect traffic. So, I is also not implicit. Since the traffic was not affected during rains as expected, so III is implicit

30.

Statement: The company has recently announced a series of incentives to the employees who are punctual and sincere.

Assumptions:

I. Those who are not punctual at present may get motivated by the announcement.

II. The productivity of the company may increase.

III. The profit earned by the company may be more than the amount to be spent for the incentive programmes.

A. Only I and II are implicit
B. None is implicit
C. Only II and III are implicit
D. All are implicit

Option A

Announcing incentives for punctual and sincere employees would surely motivate more and more employees to be punctual, and this will ensure productivity. So, both I and II are implicit. However, the statement does not give any information about the profit earned by the company. So, III is not implicit.

31.

Directions: Choose the correct alternative from the following.

Assertion :Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky

Reason :  Carbon dioxide sullies the water

A. Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of A
B. Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of A.
C. Assertion is true but Reason is false
D. Assertion is false but Reason is true

Option C

Carbon dioxide reacts with lime water to form milky precipitate of calcium carbonate.

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